The Great Stirrup Controversy is the academic debate about the Stirrup Thesis , the theory that feudalism in Europe developed largely as a result of the introduction of the stirrup to cavalry   in the 8th century CE. It relates to the hypothesis suggested by Lynn Townsend White Jr. White's book has proved very influential, but others have accused him of speculation, oversimplification , and ignoring contradictory evidence on the subject. Scholars have debated whether the stirrup actually provided the impetus for this social change, or whether the rise of heavy cavalry resulted from political changes in Medieval Europe. White begins by tracing the research of the 19th century German historian Heinrich Brunner , who claimed that the switch to mounted warfare occurred after the Battle of Tours with a Saracen army in Brunner pointed out that Pepin the Short began demanding horses as tribute from the Saxons in , citing this as evidence of an increasingly cavalry-dependent army.
Charlemagne's Carolingian Frankish Empire
Keith Frankish - Wikipedia
There his fundamental thesis concerned the Medieval world and centered around his contention that the control of water ways, the rivers and the Mediterranean Sea, shaped the nature of the cities. Pirenne is at pains to show that while there were important military victories scored by the Germanic tribes, there was little lasting shift in the fundamental culture of Rome. He shows how within a relatively short period of time Germanic peoples were co-opted into Roman culture, intermarried and that the Latin language s remained dominant. He argues that fundamentally the Germanic peoples had little desire to destroy the empire, but much preferred to just have a share of the benefits. He next details several features of life in the European sector of the empire after the invasions to further support the general thesis.
The Life of Charlemagne by Einhard
The thesis examines the role and perceptions of Gallic civitates from A. Civitates are those urban centres which were distinguished as imperial administrative capitals and, later, as episcopal sees. The thesis addresses a number of general questions, among which the most fundamental is that of which urban functions were essential to the role and ideal of the civitas. Other questions raised include the importance of romanitas to urban-based functions and features, the relation
Crowley, Heather The impact of the Franks on the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: landscape, seigneurial obligations, and rural communities in the Frankish East. PhD Thesis, Cardiff University.